The Factor of Pakistan in the Afghan Armed Conflict (late 1970sā€“1980s)
The article deals with the methods used by Pakistan to impact the first phase of the Afghan armed conflict (in late 1970s ā€“ 1980s). The author analyses different aspects of Pakistan's influence on both combat operations and political situation in Afghanistan. The peculiarity of the research is dwelling on the role of the Pakistani Foreign Ministry and the country's special services. The Pakistan's effort in shaping the international agenda on the issue in question is specially noted in the article. Afghanistan is one of the hotbeds of international instability and a source of threats to the world's security, such as uncontrolled spread of arms, drug trafficking, various separatist and terrorist organizations. The basis for such a situation in many respects was laid in the first phase of the armed conflict, in which Pakistan took an active part. Pakistan's assistance along with other countries' support (USA, Saudi Arabia etc.) helped the Afghan opposition to get on their feet and finally come to power in Afghanistan. Besides, the article is of particular interest as several issues concerning Pakistan's impact on the event in South Asia in 1980s still require further research. The objective of the study is to analyse the role of different actors in Pakistani government and society in evolution of the first phase of the Afghan armed conflict and find out the consequences of Pakistani certain policy on the Afghan issue for South Asia and the whole world. The author applies a complex approach to review the events in Afghanistan and Pakistan in 1970-80s and avoids dealing only with widely known facts. A wide row of Russian and foreign sources is engaged for more profound research. The article also refers to several Pakistani scientists, including Urdu-speaking ones, whose opinions are quite different from those generally accepted in Russia.

Key words
Afghan War, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Afghan-Pakistan relations, mujahideen, Zia Ul-Haq.
Sergey Chekalin
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