Nationalism in the regime of Augusto Pinochet
The article addresses the nationalistic aspect of the regime of the dictator Augusto Pinochet who ruled Chile in 1973 — 1990. The relevance of the research is urgent because of the fact that although Chile is one of the most developed countries in Latin America, there are deep social contradictions, a gap between the rich and the poor which repeatedly causes civil unrest even now. The roots of the problem lie in the economic and social reforms of the military junta which are to be analyzed in conjunction with a deep research of the nationalistic framework of its policy. The goal of the survey is to analyze the manifestations of nationalism in Pinochet's regime, characteristic features of the junta's rhetoric with regard to the national issue of Chile. The author tries to give an answer to the question whether nationalism was a historical necessity for Chile to overcome the crisis or a tool of the political elite which enabled it to implement its goals and to manipulate the society while hiding behind the idea of pursuing the national aspirations of the country. The bibliography concerning this topic is rather ambiguous as the interpretation of the reforms and results of Pinochet's governance often depend on the subjective attitude of the researcher to the figure of this politician. This article is based upon the comprehensive analysis of the historical documents and the researches of scientists representing various schools and convictions. It aims to give an objective outlook of the domestic, including economic, social and political reforms, and international policy of the junta and its nationalistic aspect. The research pays special attention to the relations between Chile and other Latin American countries and Chile and the USA. External contacts with other states are of little scientific interest as Western Europe rejected to cooperate with the dictatorial regime which was accused of the violation of human rights; at the same time Pinochet severed diplomatic relations with the socialist countries.
Nationalism, Pinochet, Chile, military junta, Latin America, dictatorship, Asian Pacific region
Polina Slepukhina
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